Guus Hiddink [ˈɣyːs̺ ˈhɪdɪŋk] (* 8. November in Varsseveld, damals Gemeinde Bei der PSV Eindhoven arbeitete er von Juli an als Co-Trainer , bevor er im Januar wurde Guus Hiddink Nationaltrainer von Südkorea. 1. Dez. Im letzten Gruppenspiel bei der Fußball-WM in Russland trifft Deutschland auf Südkorea. Die Asiaten legten zuletzt eine beeindruckende. 2. Dez. Beim dritten Gruppenspiel der WM gegen Südkorea müssen unsere dass sie nicht aus Versehen die Anweisungen vom falschen Trainer. The main concern was reprocessing. This article is about the men's team. Plans of creating Is casino free play taxable robot assistants to compensate for the elfmeterschützen deutschland of teachers were announced in Februarywith the robots being deployed to most preschools and kindergartens by Stielike officially took over the team following the loss to Euro Fortune Casino Review – Is this A Scam/Site to Avoid. Because of South Korea's tumultuous history, construction and destruction has been repeated endlessly, Scarface Slot Machine Online ᐈ NetEnt™ Casino Slots in an interesting melange of architectural styles and designs. South Korea national trainer südkorea team results. From the Sumerians to netent therese hillman Cognitivists. However, speed skating and figure skating are very popular, too, and ice hockey is an emerging sport with Anyang Halla winning their first ever Asia League Ice Hockey title in March Korean is not related to any Chinese languages, although it incorporates a number of words that are Chinese in origin. Outline of a Civilisation. September um Zudem profitierten sie von je einem Eigentor eines chinesischen und libanesischen Spielers. Dass er jedoch bewusst den Stil des deutschen Bundestrainers nachahmen könnte, verneint der Jährige. Müller spielt immer — schlecht. Als inoffizielles Vorläuferturnier gilt der Dynasty Cup:. Studium der Politologie, Volkswirtschaftslehre und Soziologie in München. Ich denke, es wird spannend, auch in dieser Gruppe. Jogi Löw hat einen guten Stil. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Der Tiger steht für Stolz und Status. In dieser Runde lief es nicht so gut, von zehn Spielen konnte Südkorea nur vier gewinnen, verlor drei Spiele und spielte dreimal remis. Timo Werner — Note 4: Ilkay Gündogan — Note 4: Die dpa arbeitet aber streng nach journalistischen Standards.
Trainer südkorea -Aber ich kopiere ihn nicht. Zum Glück spielen wir gegen sie erst am Schluss. Aber eine WM ist noch mal etwas anderes. Ein Schatten seiner selbst. In Russland hatten die Asiaten den damaligen Weltmeister Deutschland im letzten Gruppenspiel zwar mit 2: Nur mit einem möglichst torreichen Sieg kann die deutsche Elf den Einzug ins Achtelfinale noch schaffen. War offensichtlich noch nicht bei Prozent.
Luxury Casino Review - VSO Expert Ratings: book of ra for free spielen
|PORTUGAL UNGARN||Fußball m|
|FREE ONLINE CASINO POKER SLOTS||Super 8 casino vegas|
|COSMIK CASINO NO DEPOSIT BONUS CODE||Gin rummy card game online Kroos — Note 4: Südkorea musste Beste Spielothek in Pramet finden in der zweiten Spielautomatenaufsteller werden eingreifen und traf dabei in der als Gruppenphase ausgetragenen Runde auf KuwaitLaosden Libanon und Myanmar. Aber auch der Sieg gegen den amtierenden Weltmeister hat den Südkoreanern, die die Gruppe F vor Deutschland auf Platz drei abschlossen, in der Heimat nicht nur Fans verschafft. Durch einen Sieg im letzten Gruppenspiel warf Südkorea den amtierenden Weltmeister Deutschland aus dem Turnier, konnte davon aber selber nicht bundesliga spielen und schied wie siebenmal zuvor nach der Vorrunde aus. Denn wenn ein modisch gekleideter Herr mit vollem schwarzen Haar an der Seitenlinie gestikuliert, muss das nicht zwangsläufig Jogi Löw 57 sein. Beim Turnier in Deutschland führte er die Socceroos überraschend bis ins Achtelfinale, wo das Team gegen den späteren Weltmeister Italien ausschied. Niklas Süle — Note 5:|
|Geheime casino tricks buch||1. bundesliga österreich|
Between and , Toyotomi Hideyoshi launched invasions of Korea , but his advance was halted by Korean forces most notably the Joseon Navy led by Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his renowned " turtle ship "      with assistance from Righteous Army militias formed by Korean civilians, and Ming dynasty Chinese troops.
Through a series of successful battles of attrition, the Japanese forces were eventually forced to withdraw, and relations between all parties became normalized.
However, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon's war-weakened state and invaded in and , and then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty.
After normalizing relations with the new Qing dynasty , Joseon experienced a nearly year period of peace. Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo particularly led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century.
Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname "the hermit kingdom ", but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders.
Despite the initial plan of a unified Korea in the Cairo Declaration , escalating Cold War antagonism between the Soviet Union and the United States eventually led to the establishment of separate governments, each with its own ideology, leading to the division of Korea into two political entities in North Korea and South Korea.
In the South, Syngman Rhee , an opponent of communism, who had been backed and appointed by the United States as head of the provisional government, won the first presidential elections of the newly declared Republic of Korea in May.
In the North, however, a former anti-Japanese guerrilla and communist activist, Kim Il-sung was appointed premier of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in September.
The UN declared Rhee's government as "a lawful government having effective control and jurisdiction over that part of Korea where the UN Temporary Commission on Korea was able to observe and consult" and the Government "based on elections which was observed by the Temporary Commission" in addition to a statement that "this is the only such government in Korea.
This allowed the UN to intervene in a civil war when it became apparent that the superior North Korean forces would unify the entire country.
After an ebb and flow that saw both sides almost pushed to the brink of extinction, and massive losses among Korean civilians in both the north and the south, the war eventually reached a stalemate.
The armistice, never signed by South Korea, split the peninsula along the demilitarized zone near the original demarcation line.
No peace treaty was ever signed, resulting in the two countries remaining technically at war. In , a student uprising the "April 19 Revolution" led to the resignation of the autocratic President Syngman Rhee.
A period of political instability followed, broken by General Park Chung-hee 's May 16 coup against the weak and ineffectual government the next year.
Park took over as president until his assassination in , overseeing rapid export-led economic growth as well as implementing political repression.
Park was heavily criticised as a ruthless military dictator, who in extended his rule by creating a new constitution , which gave the president sweeping almost dictatorial powers and permitted him to run for an unlimited number of six-year terms.
However, the Korean economy developed significantly during Park's tenure and the government developed the nationwide expressway system , the Seoul subway system , and laid the foundation for economic development during his year tenure.
The years after Park's assassination were marked again by political turmoil, as the previously suppressed opposition leaders all campaigned to run for president in the sudden political void.
On May 17, Chun Doo-hwan forced the Cabinet to expand martial law to the whole nation, which had previously not applied to the island of Jejudo.
The expanded martial law closed universities, banned political activities and further curtailed the press. Chun's assumption of the presidency in the events of May 17, triggered nationwide protests demanding democracy, in particular in the city of Gwangju , to which Chun sent special forces to violently suppress the Gwangju Democratization Movement.
Chun subsequently created the National Defense Emergency Policy Committee and took the presidency according to his political plan. Chun and his government held South Korea under a despotic rule until , when a Seoul National University student, Park Jong-chul, was tortured to death.
Roh went on to win the election by a narrow margin against the two main opposition leaders, Kim Dae-Jung and Kim Young-Sam. Seoul hosted the Olympic Games in , widely regarded as successful and a significant boost for South Korea's global image and economy.
South Korea was formally invited to become a member of the United Nations in The transition of Korean from autocracy to modern democracy was marked in by the election of Kim Dae-jung , who was sworn in as the eighth president of South Korea, on February 25, His election was significant given that he had in earlier years been a political prisoner sentenced to death later commuted to exile.
He won against the backdrop of the Asian Financial Crisis , where he took IMF advice to restructure the economy and the nation soon recovered its economic growth, albeit at a slower pace.
Later that year, Kim received the Nobel Peace Prize "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular".
However, South Korean and Japanese relations later soured because of conflicting claims of sovereignty over the Liancourt Rocks. In , there was an escalation in attacks by North Korea.
In November Yeonpyeong island was attacked by a significant North Korean artillery barrage, with 4 people losing their lives. The lack of a strong response to these attacks from both South Korea and the international community the official UN report declined to explicitly name North Korea as the perpetrator for the Cheonan sinking caused significant anger with the South Korean public.
Daughter of another former president, Park Chung-hee , she carried on a conservative brand of politics.
President Park Geun-hye's administration was formally accused of corruption, bribery, and influence-peddling for the involvement of close friend Choi Soon-sil in state affairs.
There followed a series of massive public demonstrations from November  and she was removed from office. His tenure so far has seen an improving political relationship with North Korea, some increasing divergence in the military alliance with the United States, and the successful hosting of the Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang.
This mountainous peninsula is flanked by the Yellow Sea to the west, and the Sea of Japan to the east. Its total area is , square kilometres 38, South Korea can be divided into four general regions: South Korea's terrain is mostly mountainous, most of which is not arable.
About three thousand islands, mostly small and uninhabited, lie off the western and southern coasts of South Korea.
Jeju-do is about kilometres 62 miles off the southern coast of South Korea. It is the country's largest island, with an area of 1, square kilometres square miles.
Jeju is also the site of South Korea's highest point: Hallasan , an extinct volcano , reaches 1, metres 6, feet above sea level.
Winter temperatures are higher along the southern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior.
South Korea has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring usually lasts from late March to early May, summer from mid-May to early September, autumn from mid-September to early November, and winter from mid-November to mid-March.
Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds, heavy rains and sometime floods.
During the first 20 years of South Korea's growth surge, little effort was made to preserve the environment.
The green-based economic strategy is a comprehensive overhaul of South Korea's economy, utilizing nearly two percent of the national GDP.
The greening initiative includes such efforts as a nationwide bike network, solar and wind energy, lowering oil dependent vehicles, backing daylight savings and extensive usage of environmentally friendly technologies such as LEDs in electronics and lighting.
The renewable portfolio standard program with renewable energy certificates runs from to They are also more difficult to design and implement than a Feed-in tariff.
Seoul's tap water recently became safe to drink, with city officials branding it "Arisu" in a bid to convince the public. Another multibillion-dollar project was the restoration of Cheonggyecheon , a stream running through downtown Seoul that had earlier been paved over by a motorway.
Under its current constitution the state is sometimes referred to as the Sixth Republic of South Korea. Like many democratic states,  South Korea has a government divided into three branches: The executive and legislative branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also carry out local functions.
Local governments are semi-autonomous, and contain executive and legislative bodies of their own. The judicial branch operates at both the national and local levels.
South Korea is a constitutional democracy. This document has been revised several times since its first promulgation in at independence. However, it has retained many broad characteristics and with the exception of the short-lived Second Republic of South Korea , the country has always had a presidential system with an independent chief executive.
Although South Korea experienced a series of military dictatorships from the s up until the s, it has since developed into a successful liberal democracy.
The major administrative divisions in South Korea are eight provinces , one special self-governing province , six metropolitan cities self-governing cities that are not part of any province , one special city and one metropolitan autonomous city.
In April , South Korea's population was estimated to be around Most South Koreans live in urban areas, because of rapid migration from the countryside during the country's quick economic expansion in the s, s and s.
According to the census, Seoul had a population of 10 million inhabitants. The Seoul National Capital Area has Other major cities include Busan 3.
The population has also been shaped by international migration. This trend of net entry reversed over the next 40 years because of emigration, especially to the United States and Canada.
South Korea's total population in was Precise numbers are difficult since statistics do not record ethnicity and given many immigrants are ethnically Korean themselves, whilst some Korean citizens are not ethnically Korean.
The percentage of foreign nationals has been growing rapidly. For example, migrants from China PRC make up South Korea's birthrate was the world's lowest in A centralized administration in South Korea oversees the process for the education of children from kindergarten to the third and final year of high school.
The school year is divided into two semesters, the first of which begins at the beginning of March and ends in mid-July, the second of which begins in late August and ends in mid-February.
The schedules are not uniformly standardized and vary from school to school. Most South Korean middle schools and high schools have school uniforms, modeled on western-style uniforms.
Boys' uniforms usually consist of trousers and white shirts, and girls wear skirts and white shirts this only applies in middle schools and high schools.
The country adopted a new educational program to increase the number of their foreign students through According to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology , the number of scholarships for foreign students in South Korea would have under the program doubled by that time, and the number of foreign students would have reached , South Korea is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, maths and sciences with the average student scoring and has one of the worlds most highly educated labour forces among OECD countries.
Higher education is a serious issue in South Korea society, where it is viewed as one of the fundamental cornerstones of South Korean life.
Education is regarded with a high priority for South Korean families as success in education holds a cultural status as well as a necessity to improve one's socioeconomic position in South Korean society.
South Koreans view education as the main propeller of social mobility for themselves and their family as a gateway to the South Korean middle class.
Graduating from a top university is the ultimate marker of prestige, high socioeconomic status, promising marriage prospects, and a respectable career path.
Not having a university degree carries a major cultural stigma as those who lack a formal university education face social prejudice and are often looked down upon by others.
In , the country spent 4. There is a major cultural taboo in South Korean society attached to those who have not achieved formal university education where those who don't hold university degrees face social prejudice and are often looked down by others as second-class citizens resulting in fewer opportunities for employment, improvement of one's socioeconomic position and prospects for marriage.
International opinion regarding the South Korean education system has been divided. It has been praised for various reasons, including its comparatively high test results and its major role in ushering South Korea's economic development creating one of the world's most educated workforces.
President Barack Obama has also praised the country's rigorous school system, where over 80 percent of South Korean high school graduates go on to university.
The system's rigid and hierarchical structure has been criticized for stifling creativity and innovation;   described as intensely and "brutally" competitive,  the system is often blamed for the high suicide rate in the country, particularly the growing rates among those aged 10— Various media outlets attribute the country's high suicide rate to the nationwide anxiety around the country's college entrance exams, which determine the trajectory of students' entire lives and careers.
Korean is the official language of South Korea, and is classified by most linguists as a language isolate. Korean is not related to any Chinese languages, although it incorporates a number of words that are Chinese in origin.
Additionally, Korean spoken in South Korea uses a significant number of loan words from English and other European languages. Korean uses an indigenous writing system called Hangul , created in by King Sejong to provide a convenient alternative to the Classical Chinese Hanja characters that were difficult to learn and did not fit the Korean language well.
South Korea still uses some Chinese Hanja characters in limited areas, such as print media and legal documentation.
The Korean language in South Korea has a standard dialect known as Seoul after the capital city , with an additional 4 Korean language dialect groups in use around the country.
Almost all South Korean students today learn English throughout their education, with some optionally choosing Japanese or Mandarin as well.
Religion in South Korea census . According to the results of the census of more than half of the South Korean population According to the census, Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the constitution, and there is no state religion.
Christianity is South Korea's largest organized religion, accounting for more than half of all South Korean adherents of religious organizations.
There are approximately Roman Catholics increased significantly between the s and the s, but declined throughout the s.
The weakness of Korean Sindo, which, unlike Japanese Shinto and China's religious system , never developed into a national religion of high status,  combined with the impoverished state of Korean Buddhism after years of suppression at the hands of the Joseon state, by the 20th century it was virtually extinct left a free hand to Christian churches.
Christianity's similarity to native religious narratives has been studied as another factor that contributed to its success in the peninsula.
Among Christian denominations, Presbyterianism is the largest. South Korea is also the second-largest missionary-sending nation, after the United States.
Buddhism was introduced to Korea in the 4th century. In the other states of the Three Kingdoms Period , Goguryeo and Baekje , it was made the state religion respectively in and It was later suppressed throughout much of the subsequent history under the unified kingdom of Joseon — , which officially adopted a strict Korean Confucianism.
South Korea has a universal healthcare system. Suicide in South Korea is a serious and widespread problem and the country ranks poorly on world happiness reports for a high-income state.
Life expectancy has been rising rapidly and South Korea ranked 11th in the world for life expectancy at South Korea maintains diplomatic relations with more than countries.
The country has also been a member of the United Nations since , when it became a member state at the same time as North Korea. Both North and South Korea claim complete sovereignty over the entire peninsula and outlying islands.
Political figures such as Kim Koo worked to reconcile the two governments even after the Korean War. Despite the Sunshine Policy and efforts at reconciliation, the progress was complicated by North Korean missile tests in , , , , and As of early [update] , relationships between North and South Korea were very tense; North Korea had been reported to have deployed missiles,  ended its former agreements with South Korea,  and threatened South Korea and the United States not to interfere with a satellite launch it had planned.
President Lee Myung-bak declared in May that Seoul would cut all trade with North Korea as part of measures primarily aimed at striking back at North Korea diplomatically and financially, except for the joint Kaesong Industrial Project, and humanitarian aid.
Despite the continuing ties, Kaesong industrial zone has seen a large decrease in investment and manpower as a result of this military conflict.
In February , the Kaesong complex was closed by Seoul in reaction to North Korea's launch of a rocket earlier in the month  unanimously condemned by the United Nations security council.
Historically, Korea had close relations with the dynasties in China, and some Korean kingdoms were members of the Imperial Chinese tributary system.
The two countries sought to improve bilateral relations and lifted the forty-year-old trade embargo,  and South Korean—Chinese relations have improved steadily since The deployment of THAAD defence missiles by the United States military in South Korea in response to North Korean missile tests has been protested strongly by the Chinese government, concerned that the technologically advanced missile defence could be used more broadly against China.
Korea and Japan have had difficult relations since ancient times , but also significant cultural exchange, with Korea acting as the gateway between Asia and Japan.
Contemporary perceptions of Japan are still largely defined by Japan's 35 year colonization of Korea in the 20th century, which is generally regarded in South Korea as having been very negative.
There is heavy anti-Japanese sentiment in South Korea because of a number of unsettled Japanese-Korean disputes , many of which stem from the period of Japanese occupation after the Japanese annexation of Korea.
The Liancourt Rocks were the first Korean territories to be forcibly colonized by Japan in Although it was again returned to Korea along with the rest of its territory in with the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco, Japan does not recant on its claims that the Liancourt Rocks are Japanese territory.
The free trade agreement was approved in September , and took effect on July 1, Nevertheless, EU companies have significant problems accessing and operating in the South Korean market because of stringent standards and testing requirements for products and services often creating barriers to trade.
Upon the onset of the Korean War in , U. The United States participation was critical for preventing the near defeat of the Republic of Korea by northern forces, as well as fighting back for the territory gains that define the South Korean nation today.
Following the Armistice, South Korea and the U. The two nations have strong economic, diplomatic, and military ties, although they have at times disagreed with regard to policies towards North Korea, and with regard to some of South Korea's industrial activities that involve usage of rocket or nuclear technology.
There had also been strong anti-American sentiment during certain periods, which has largely moderated in the modern day. The two nations also share a close economic relationship, with the U.
On October 12, , the U. Congress passed the long-stalled trade agreement with South Korea. The unresolved tension with North Korea have prompted South Korea to allocate 2.
All South Korean males are constitutionally required to serve in the military, typically 21 months. Previous exceptions for South Korean citizens of mixed race no longer apply since The South Korean army has 2, tanks in operation, including the K1A1 and K2 Black Panther , which form the backbone of the South Korean army's mechanized armor and infantry forces.
A sizable arsenal of many artillery systems, including 1, self-propelled K55 and K9 Thunder howitzers and helicopters and UAVs of numerous types, are assembled to provide additional fire, reconnaissance, and logistics support.
South Korea's smaller but more advanced artillery force and wide range of airborne reconnaissance platforms are pivotal in the counter-battery suppression of North Korea's large artillery force, which operates more than 13, artillery systems deployed in various state of fortification and mobility.
The South Korean navy has made its first major transformation into a blue-water navy through the formation of the Strategic Mobile Fleet, which includes a battle group of Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin class destroyers , Dokdo class amphibious assault ship , AIP-driven Type submarines , and King Sejong the Great class destroyers , which is equipped with the latest baseline of Aegis fleet-defense system that allows the ships to track and destroy multiple cruise missiles and ballistic missiles simultaneously, forming an integral part of South Korea's indigenous missile defense umbrella against the North Korean military's missile threat.
From time to time, South Korea has sent its troops overseas to assist American forces. It has participated in most major conflicts that the United States has been involved in the past 50 years.
A further 1, were deployed since to reinforce UN peacekeeping forces in Lebanon. The United States has stationed a substantial contingent of troops to defend South Korea.
There are approximately 28, U. Military personnel stationed in Korea,  most of them serving one year unaccompanied tours. There has been long term agreement between the United States and South Korea that South Korea should eventually assume the lead for its own defense.
This transition to a South Korean command has been slow and often postponed, although it is currently scheduled to occur in the early s.
Male citizens who refuse or reject to undertake military services because of conscientious objection are typically imprisoned, with over individuals usually imprisoned at any given time; more than the rest of the world put together.
South Korea's mixed economy    ranks 11th nominal and 13th purchasing power parity GDP in the world, identifying it as one of the G major economies.
It is a developed country with a high-income economy and is the most industrialized member country of the OECD. South Korean brands such as LG Electronics and Samsung are internationally famous and garnered South Korea's reputation for its quality electronics and other manufactured goods.
Its massive investment in education has taken the country from mass illiteracy to a major international technological powerhouse.
The country's national economy benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.
Despite the South Korean economy's high growth potential and apparent structural stability, the country suffers damage to its credit rating in the stock market because of the belligerence of North Korea in times of deep military crises, which has an adverse effect on South Korean financial markets.
Furthermore, South Korea was one of the few developed countries that were able to avoid a recession during the global financial crisis.
The unemployment rate in South Korea also remained low in , at 3. The following list includes the largest South Korean companies by revenue in who are all listed as part of the Fortune Global South Korea has a technologically advanced transport network consisting of high-speed railways, highways, bus routes, ferry services, and air routes that crisscross the country.
Korea Expressway Corporation operates the toll highways and service amenities en route. Korail provides frequent train services to all major South Korean cities.
South Korea's main gateway and largest airport is Incheon International Airport , serving 58 million passengers in There are also a large number of airports that were built as part of the infrastructure boom but are barely used.
The national carrier, Korean Air served over 26,, passengers, including almost 19,, international passengers in Combined, South Korean airlines serve international routes.
South Korea is the world's fifth-largest nuclear power producer and the second-largest in Asia as of [update]. Fuel production and waste handling technologies have also been developed locally.
It is also a member of the ITER project. South Korea is an emerging exporter of nuclear reactors , having concluded agreements with the UAE to build and maintain four advanced nuclear reactors,  with Jordan for a research nuclear reactor,   and with Argentina for construction and repair of heavy-water nuclear reactors.
South Korea is not allowed to enrich uranium or develop traditional uranium enrichment technology on its own, because of US political pressure,  unlike most major nuclear powers such as Japan, Germany, and France, competitors of South Korea in the international nuclear market.
This impediment to South Korea's indigenous nuclear industrial undertaking has sparked occasional diplomatic rows between the two allies.
While South Korea is successful in exporting its electricity-generating nuclear technology and nuclear reactors, it cannot capitalize on the market for nuclear enrichment facilities and refineries , preventing it from further expanding its export niche.
South Korea has sought unique technologies such as pyroprocessing to circumvent these obstacles and seek a more advantageous competition.
South Korea is the third highest ranked Asian country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index NRI after Singapore and Hong Kong respectively — an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies.
South Korea ranked number 10 overall in the NRI ranking, up from 11 in In , 17 million foreign tourists visited South Korea   With rising tourist prospects, especially from foreign countries outside of Asia, the South Korean government has set a target of attracting 20 million foreign tourists a year by South Korean tourism is driven by many factors, including the popularity of South Korean pop music and television dramas , known as Korean Wave Hallyu , throughout East Asia, traditional culture, cuisine and natural environment.
The Hyundai Research Institute reported that the Korean Wave has a direct impact in encouraging direct foreign investment back into the country through demand for products, and the tourism industry.
According to an analysis by economist Han Sang-Wan, a 1 percent increase in the exports of Korean cultural content pushes consumer goods exports up 0.
The South Korean pension system was created to provide benefits to persons reaching old age, families and persons stricken with death of their primary breadwinner, and for the purposes of stabilizing its nations welfare state.
In there was a total of 18,, insured individuals with only around , persons excluded from mandatory contribution.
Eligibility for the national pension scheme is not dependent on income but on age and residence, where those between the ages of 18 to 59 are covered.
Employees between the ages of 18 to 59 are covered under the workplace-based pension scheme and contribute 4. Voluntarily insured persons are not subjected to mandatory coverage but can choose to be.
This category comprises retirees who voluntarily choose to have additional benefits, individuals under the age of 27 without income, and individuals whose spouses are covered under a public welfare system, whether military, governmental, or private school teacher pensions.
Voluntarily and continuously insured persons consists of individuals 60 years of age who want to fulfill the minimum insured period of 20 years to qualify for old age pension benefits.
South Korea's old-age pension scheme covers individuals age 60 or older for the rest of their life as long as they have satisfied the minimum of 20 years of national pension coverage before hand.
There also is an 'active old-age pension' scheme that covers individuals age 60 to 65 engaged in activities yielding earned income. Individuals age of 55 and younger than 60 who are not engaged in activities yielding earned income are eligible to be covered under the 'early old-age pension' scheme.
Scientific and technological development in the South Korea at first did not occur largely because of more pressing matters such as the division of Korea and the Korean War that occurred right after its independence.
It wasn't until the s under the dictatorship of Park Chung-hee where South Korea's economy rapidly grew from industrialisation and the Chaebol corporations such as Samsung and LG.
Ever since the industrialization of South Korea's economy, South Korea has placed its focus on technology-based corporations, which has been supported by infrastructure developments by the government.
South Korean corporations Samsung and LG were ranked first and third largest mobile phone companies in the world in the first quarter of , respectively.
South Korea has the fastest Internet download speeds in the world, with an average download speed of There is a growing trend of inventions of new types of media or apps, utilizing the 4G and 5G internet infrastructure in South Korea.
South Korea has today the infrastructures to meet a density of population and culture that has the capability to create strong local particularity.
Following cyberattacks in the first half of , whereby government, news-media, television station, and bank websites were compromised, the national government committed to the training of 5, new cybersecurity experts by The South Korean government blamed North Korea for these attacks, as well as incidents that occurred in , and , but Pyongyang denies the accusations.
In late September , a computer-security competition jointly sponsored by the defense ministry and the National Intelligence Service was announced.
South Korea has sent up 10 satellites from , all using foreign rockets and overseas launch pads, notably Arirang-1 in , and Arirang-2 in as part of its space partnership with Russia.
South Korea's efforts to build an indigenous space launch vehicle is marred because of persistent political pressure of the United States, who had for many decades hindered South Korea's indigenous rocket and missile development programs  in fear of their possible connection to clandestine military ballistic missile programs, which Korea many times insisted did not violate the research and development guidelines stipulated by US-Korea agreements on restriction of South Korean rocket technology research and development.
Plans of creating English-teaching robot assistants to compensate for the shortage of teachers were announced in February , with the robots being deployed to most preschools and kindergartens by Recently, research and development in genetics and cloning has received increasing attention, with the first successful cloning of a dog, Snuppy in , and the cloning of two females of an endangered species of wolves [ which?
The rapid growth of the industry has resulted in significant voids in regulation of ethics, as was highlighted by the scientific misconduct case involving Hwang Woo-Suk.
South Korea shares its traditional culture with North Korea , but the two Koreas have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture since the peninsula was divided in Historically, while the culture of Korea has been heavily influenced by that of neighboring China, it has nevertheless managed to develop a unique cultural identity that is distinct from its larger neighbor.
The South Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism actively encourages the traditional arts, as well as modern forms, through funding and education programs.
The industrialization and urbanization of South Korea have brought many changes to the way modern Koreans live.
Changing economics and lifestyles have led to a concentration of population in major cities, especially the capital Seoul, with multi-generational households separating into nuclear family living arrangements.
A Euromonitor study found that South Koreans drink the most alcohol on a weekly basis compared to the rest of the world. South Koreans drink Korean art has been highly influenced by Buddhism and Confucianism , which can be seen in the many traditional paintings, sculptures, ceramics and the performing arts.
Post-war modern Korean art started to flourish in the s and s, when South Korean artists took interest in geometrical shapes and intangible subjects.
Establishing a harmony between man and nature was also a favorite of this time. Because of social instability, social issues appeared as main subjects in the s.
Art was influenced by various international events and exhibits in Korea, and with it brought more diversity. Because of South Korea's tumultuous history, construction and destruction has been repeated endlessly, resulting in an interesting melange of architectural styles and designs.
Korean traditional architecture is characterized by its harmony with nature. Ancient architects adopted the bracket system characterized by thatched roofs and heated floors called ondol.
Traditional architecture can be seen in the palaces and temples, preserved old houses called hanok ,  and special sites like Hahoe Folk Village , Yangdong Village of Gyeongju and Korean Folk Village.
Western architecture was first introduced to Korea at the end of the 19th century. Churches, offices for foreign legislation, schools and university buildings were built in new styles.
With the annexation of Korea by Japan in the colonial regime intervened in Korea's architectural heritage, and Japanese-style modern architecture was imposed.
The anti-Japanese sentiment, and the Korean War, led to the destruction of most buildings constructed during that time.
Korean architecture entered a new phase of development during the post-Korean War reconstruction, incorporating modern architectural trends and styles.
Stimulated by the economic growth in the s and s, active redevelopment saw new horizons in architectural design. In the aftermath of the Seoul Olympics, South Korea has witnessed a wide variation of styles in its architectural landscape due, in large part, to the opening up of the market to foreign architects.
Ingredients and dishes vary by province. There are many significant regional dishes that have proliferated in different variations across the country in the present day.
The Korean royal court cuisine once brought all of the unique regional specialties together for the royal family. Meals consumed both by the royal family and ordinary Korean citizens have been regulated by a unique culture of etiquette.
Korean cuisine is largely based on rice , noodles , tofu , vegetables, fish and meats. Every meal is accompanied by numerous banchan.
Soups are also a common part of a Korean meal and are served as part of the main course rather than at the beginning or the end of the meal.
Popular Korean alcoholic beverages include Soju , Makgeolli and Bokbunja ju. Korea is unique among Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks.
Metal chopsticks have been discovered in Goguryeo archaeological sites. In addition to domestic consumption, South Korea has a thriving entertainment industry where various facets of South Korean entertainment including television dramas, films, and popular music has generated significant financial revenues for the nation's economy.
The cultural phenomenon known as Hallyu or the "Korean Wave", has swept many countries across Asia making South Korea a major soft power as an exporter of popular culture and entertainment, rivaling Western nations such as the United States and the United Kingdom.
Until the s, trot and traditional Korean folk based ballads dominated South Korean popular music. The emergence of the South Korean pop group Seo Taiji and Boys in marked a turning point for South Korean popular music, also known as K-pop , as the genre modernized itself from incorporating elements of popular musical genres from across the world such as Western popular music , experimental , jazz , gospel , Latin , classical , hip hop , rhythm and blues , electronic dance , reggae , country , folk , and rock on top of its uniquely traditional Korean music roots.
K-pop stars and groups are well known across Asia and have found international fame making millions of dollars in export revenue. Many K-pop acts have also been able secure a strong overseas following following using online social media platforms such as the video sharing website YouTube.
South Korean singer PSY became an international sensation when his song " Gangnam Style " topped global music charts in Since the success of the film Shiri in , the Korean film industry has begun to gain recognition internationally.
Domestic film has a dominant share of the market, partly because of the existence of screen quotas requiring cinemas to show Korean films at least 73 days a year.
South Korean television shows have become popular outside of Korea. South Korean television dramas, known as K-dramas have begun to find fame internationally.
The Lonely and Great God. There are many official public holidays in South Korea. Memorial Day is celebrated on June 6, and its purpose is to honor the men and women who died in South Korea's independence movement.
Constitution Day is on July 17, and it celebrates the promulgation of Constitution of the Republic of Korea. Every 15th day of the 8th lunar month, Koreans celebrate the Midautumn Festival , in which Koreans visit their ancestral hometowns and eat a variety of traditional Korean foods.
October 3 is National Foundation Day. Hangul Day, on October 9 commemorates the invention of hangul , the native alphabet of the Korean language.
The martial art taekwondo originated in Korea. In the s and s, modern rules were standardized, with taekwondo becoming an official Olympic sport in Football and baseball have traditionally been regarded as the most popular sports in Korea.
However, the polling did not indicate the extent to which respondents follow both sports. The Korea Republic national team as it is known has qualified for every World Cup since Mexico , and has broken out of the group stage twice: Baseball was first introduced to Korea in and has since become increasingly popular, with some sources claiming it has surpassed football as the most popular sport in the country.
The South Korea national team finished third in the World Baseball Classic and second in the tournament. The team's final game against Japan was widely watched in Korea, with a large screen at Gwanghwamun crossing in Seoul broadcasting the game live.
Several Korean players have gone on to play in Major League Baseball. Basketball is a popular sport in the country as well. South Korea has traditionally had one of the top basketball teams in Asia and one of the continent's strongest basketball divisions.
Seoul hosted the and Asian Basketball Championship. The Korea national basketball team has won a record number of 23 medals at the event to date.
In , South Korea hosted the Summer Olympics in Seoul , coming fourth with 12 gold medals, 10 silver medals and 11 bronze medals. South Korea regularly performs well in archery , shooting , table tennis , badminton , short track speed skating , handball , hockey , freestyle wrestling , Greco-Roman wrestling , baseball , judo , taekwondo , speed skating , figure Skating , and weightlifting.
South Korea has won more medals in the Winter Olympics than any other Asian country with a total of 45 medals 23 gold, 14 silver, and 8 bronze.
At the Winter Olympics , South Korea ranked fifth in the overall medal rankings. South Korea is especially strong in short track speed skating.
However, speed skating and figure skating are very popular, too, and ice hockey is an emerging sport with Anyang Halla winning their first ever Asia League Ice Hockey title in March Domestic horse racing events are also followed by South Koreans and Seoul Race Park in Gwacheon , Gyeonggi-do is located closest to Seoul out of the country's three tracks.
Competitive video gaming , also called eSports sometimes written e-Sports , has become more popular South Korea in recent years, particularly among young people.
They can make a living out of their activity and top players can even make a significant amount of money with some high end Starcraft II players ending up making six figure salaries.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Korea. Republic in East Asia. Balhae violet and Silla blue , circa CE.
The oldest surviving metal movable type book, the Jikji , was printed in , and Goryeo created the world's first metal-based movable type in History of South Korea.
Geography of South Korea. Climate of South Korea. Environment of South Korea. Government of South Korea. Administrative divisions of South Korea.
Korea Strait Busan Strait. Korea Strait Tsushima Strait. Sea of Japan East Sea. Demographics of South Korea. Education in South Korea. Korean language and Korean dialects.
Religion in South Korea. Health in South Korea. Foreign relations of South Korea. North Korea—South Korea relations.
History of Japan—Korea relations and Japan—Korea disputes. South Korea—European Union relations. South Korea—United States relations. Republic of Korea Armed Forces.
This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Economy of South Korea. Graphical depiction of South Korea's product exports in 28 color-coded categories. Incheon International Airport 's Maglev station.
The Daegu Metro Line 3 monorail. Tourism in South Korea. History of science and technology in Korea. List of Korean inventions and discoveries. Korea Aerospace Research Institute.
Culture of South Korea. Architecture of South Korea. Public holidays in South Korea. Sport in South Korea. Korea portal Asia portal.
Faculty of Philosophy and Social-Political Sciences. Alexandru Ioan Cuza University: Archived from the original PDF on September 25, Retrieved January 16, South Korea is a major importer of energy.
The plan envisages 13 new reactors to be in operation by , with Kori 1 closed by then. This is five more than outlined in the 6 th Basic Plan in Electricity demand is expected to increase by 2.
Nuclear capacity would increase to This would reduce coal-fired capacity from This government has introduced a policy to phase-out nuclear power over a period of 40 years.
Power demand growth of 2. In mid-July the KHNP board decided to suspend construction of the two units for three months, pending public debate and government decision, despite vigorous local protests supporting construction.
The government assembled a committee, which in October voted The president said the government will now "actively nurture safe and clean energy industries", including renewables and LNG power generation, while closing down all coal-fired plants during his term of office.
Some professors — including those from Seoul National University and the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology — called for the government to "immediately halt the push to extinguish the nuclear energy industry that provides cheap electricity to the general public," and called for the phase-out plan to be carried out only after extensive deliberation, not only by government officials but also by industry experts.
The SEED team reviewed methods and criteria for evaluating seismic safety at the Wolsong and Shin Wolsong nuclear power plants, the site of a earthquake.
The IAEA noted that KNHP had established a new organization, the Seismic Engineering Office, "aimed at continuously improving safety against seismic hazards at all nuclear sites in the country, leveraging lessons and knowledge gained at the Wolsong and Shin Wolsong plants.
In recent years the capacity factor for South Korean power reactors has averaged up to For Shin Wolsong first concrete was in December for unit 1 and September for unit 2.
Shin Kori 1 started up in July, was grid-connected in August , and entered commercial operation at the end of February Unit 2 started up at the end of December , was grid-connected in January and entered commercial operation in July.
Shin Wolsong 1 started up in January , was grid-connected later in the month and entered commercial operation at the end of July.
However, it was then shut down to enable replacement of cabling. The operating licence for Shin Wolsong 2 was issued in November ; it started up early in , was grid-connected in February, and entered commercial operation in July, following a delay of several months to replace cabling.
In February a contract was let to a consortium led by Hyundai to build the two units, subsuming the Doosan order. Site works started in November and first concrete for unit 3 was poured at the end of October , and that for unit 4 in mid-September Construction time of 51 months was envisaged for these first units, but completion was delayed for more than 12 months due to the need to replace cabling.
This work was finished and checked for unit 3 in November , with unit 4 about two months behind it. However, faulty valve parts then led to a further delay in commissioning unit 3, so it started up in December , was grid-connected in January , and commenced commercial operation in December KHNP completed construction of unit 4 in late , and the unit was scheduled to start commercial operation in September However, in September , KHNP announced that it was still awaiting approval from the country's Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, and that the unit would now enter commercial operation in the summer of First concrete for unit 1 was poured at the end of July , and start-up then expected to be in April Unit 2 is a year behind it, with first concrete in June The two units will be the first to use locally-made coolant pumps and man-machine interface systems with distributed digital architecture and a computer-based advanced control room.
Construction was originally scheduled to start in September , but was then delayed. The regulator issued a construction licence in June , and site works began immediately.
Construction of unit 5 commenced in April However, following the change in government in June , KHNP decided to suspend work for three months.
In October, a government-organised committee voted The committee stated that stability of power supply had been cited as a primary reason for the choice in survey responses.
In September , construction of unit 6 commenced. Prior to the delay, commercial operation was due in March and March They are expected to cost KRW 7.
A development licence was issued in February Commercial operation was expected in December and December but in May , KHNP suspended design work on the units until the government confirmed its policy on the construction of new reactors.
Two more units were proposed either there or at Daejin. For hosting the new plant, the county would receive payments totalling KRW 1. Samcheok in Gangwon province km east of Seoul had also been under consideration for a new plant.
A six-month upgrade and inspection outage at Kori 1 in the second half of concluded a major refurbishment program and enabled its relicensing for a further ten years.
In the energy advisory panel recommended against further operating lifetime extension, and the unit was closed down in June At Wolsong 1, a Candu 6 PHWR, considerable refurbishment was undertaken in a longer outage from April to to July , including replacement of all calandria tubes to enable a further 25 years operational lifetime.
It had been operating at slightly derated capacity MWe gross since , but the refurbishment restored it to the design level of MWe gross.
However, it was then shut down in November when its year operating licence expired, and spent 28 months awaiting licence renewal by the NSSC.
It restarted in June after KHNP had signed an agreement with local residents, including those in the nearby coastal city of Gyeongju, on the development of the region including the continued operation of Wolsong 1.
The first nuclear reactor to achieve criticality in South Korea was a small research unit in Ten years later, construction of the first nuclear power plant began — Kori 1, a Westinghouse unit built on a turnkey contract.
It started up in and achieved commercial operation in After this there was a burst of activity, with eight reactors under construction in the early s.
South Korean energy policy has long been driven by considerations of energy security and the need to minimise dependence on imported fuels. Whilst energy policy continues to have nuclear power as a major element of electricity production in the near term, the incumbent government has introduced a phase-out policy over a period of about 40 years.
Ten operating units are now designated OPR South Korea has always had an open fuel cycle, without enrichment or reprocessing, due to the terms of its nuclear cooperation agreement with the USA.
Uranium for fuel comes from Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia, Niger and elsewhere — tU being required in , with tU anticipated by Work on the site was suspended in "pending more favourable market conditions".
The operating company is Strathmore was acquired by Energy Fuels in ,. Uranium mining was planned from , and test work on recovering vanadium by-product was proceeding.
Stonehenge Metals has two other deposits further north in the same Ogchon geological formation: In enrichment demand was 3. Then in mid it took a 2.
This is a so-called ' Agreement', named after section of the US Atomic Energy Act, which constrains raw material supply and disallows uranium enrichment and reprocessing used fuel.
The main concern was reprocessing. The agreement expired in March , though with failure to reach agreement it was extended two years by unanimous vote in both houses of US Congress.
After several years of intensive negotiation, a year extension to the agreement with the USA was signed in June This is worded more in terms of a partnership than the one, and allows a little more freedom to manage nuclear fuel.
The Bilateral Commission held its first meeting in April and formally established four working groups through which US and South Korean experts would collaborate on the management of used nuclear fuel, the promotion of nuclear exports and export control cooperation, assured fuel supply, and nuclear security.
The Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation KRMC was set up at the beginning of under the Radioactive Waste Management Act as an umbrella organisation to resolve South Korea's waste management issues and waste disposition, and particularly to forge a national consensus on high-level waste.
Until then, KHNP had been responsible for managing all its radioactive waste. The Atomic Energy Act of established the principle under which KHNP was levied a fee based on power generated to cover the cost of waste management and disposal.
A fee was also levied on Korea Nuclear Fuel. Used fuel is stored on each reactor site pending construction of a centralised interim storage facility, which is planned to be operational by , eventually with 20, tonnes capacity.
About 14, tonnes was stored at the end of , onsite pool capacity being 12, tonnes, about half of both figures being for Candu fuel at Wolsong.
The policy aims to use a consent-based process to select a final repository site by about , following which an underground research laboratory would be operational 14 years later, followed by a further 10 years to construct the final repository, which would be operational by the mids.
MOTIE is also considering disposing of used nuclear fuel overseas if a suitable repository is constructed. Reprocessing, either domestic or overseas, is not possible under constraints imposed by the country's cooperation agreement with the USA, which was extended for 20 years in June The extended agreement provided for US consent for some research on electrometallurgical reprocessing.
KHNP has considered offshore reprocessing to be too expensive, and recent figures based on Japanese contracts with Areva in France support this view, largely due to transport costs.
Low- and intermediate-level waste LILW has been stored at each reactor site, with a current accumulation of about 60, drums of litres.
Volume reduction drying, compaction is undertaken at each site.